Friday, May 23, 2014

Daf Yomi Rosh Hashana Daf 10-11

1. 10b "just as one day in a month is considered a month, one month is considered a year.  Ramban mentions this in Kiddush Hachodesh 1:2.  Also, there is din miktzas hayom kikulo, like in last day of aveilus, but not miktzas hachodesh kikulo, by aveilus 12 chodesh.  Shach explicitly says this.

2. 11a Machlokes R' Elazar and Rabi Yehoshua, whether world created in Nissan or Toshrei - with fruit on trees or buds on trees, is almost - not exactly - similar to what was created first, the chicken or the egg; in a state of potential, or state of actual; (ready to pick fruit).  Though animals may have all been created as animals but notice Gemara points out it's Nissan, time for them to mate.  The mating process was purpose of creation, which is development of the embryo then fetus.

3. Rashi s.v. Lavshu.  See 8a above.

4. Tosfos s.v. Berosh Hashana.  10 makos in 10 months.  See this post.  This seems to be like Rashi that each maka lasted a month.

Monday, May 19, 2014

Rosh Hashana Daf 5-6

1. 5a - tashlumin l'azteres.  Gemara says one day because we count days for shavuos.  Gemara then asks but it's also a mitzvah to count weeks.  Our Gemara works out fine according to Ameimar, who counted days and not weeks because it is zecher l'mikdash (Menachos 65).  But our Gemara doesn't mention Ameimar.  Grid explains Ameimar that we count sefira in a deficiant manner because this is to remember the destruction of the Mikdash, not to remember the Mikdash as it stood, like Lulav.  However, we can explain Ameimar that since we only count zecher l'mikdash (it's machlokes rishonim if it's dioraissa or dirabanan), and by simply counting days we fulfill the function of remembring what we did in the mikdash.  An analogy would be washing netilas yadayim because of srach terumah - if that is the reason we should have to wash for diped fruits and vegetables also, but Tur OC 158 brings an opinion there is no need for it bizman hazeh - we see a partial commemoration of the practice is enough to be a commemoration.

2. Tashlimin L'atzeres - see Tos RH 19b.  See also Toras Refael 78 and Chagiga 18a and Mishna Lamelech Klei Hamikdash 6:10 regarding days after shavuos.  COULD BE isru chag as day of korban is similar to chol hamoed (acc to shitos that melacha on chol hamoed is not asur midioraissa – maybe minhag is no melacha because they are days of korbanos.)
This is somewhat connected to Isru Chag: Like Oser Tehillim 79 – prisoner.  Or like Isru Chag Baavosim - Tehillim 118 – tied/connected.  Or like Hasir – remove. See SA OC 429 and SA Harav seif 14.)  See Sukkah 45b from isru chag baavosim and Rashi second explanation (to 1st it seems you eat ON the holiday).  Rambam doesn’t cite this – midas chasidus or asmachta or less.  Yerushalmi AZ 1:1 (end) learns it from Nechemia 9 – fast on Nissan 24.  Why not 23?  Because it is isru chag so can’t fast on it.  (What does Megillas Taanis say?)  494:3 gra cites Chagiga 18a; cf MA 429:8. 

3. 5b Tosfos s.v. Eilu.  See Makos -__ while there is no obligation to bring personal olas (there is chiyuv to bring communal olas) there are many situations that call for bringing an olah.  Green notebook.

4. 6a kofin ad she'omer.  See my post here.  Regarding Beis din forcing someone to fulfill a mitvah.  Rav Ahron Soloveichik zt"l said to explain Tosfos Bava Basra 8b if Beis Din can force for tzedaka, that there is a principle that Beis Din cannot force if there is a reward mentioned in the Torah for the performance of that mitzvah, that Beis Din is not allowed to force.  He explained (in much richer language than I present here) that when the reward is explicit, the person should not need any incentive to fulfill the mitzvah, since he is incentivized from the Torah.

5. 6a.  Rava - if you said harei zu al menas she'ein chayav b'acharyuso.
Tosfos says it's not masneh al mah shekasav batorah.  Why not?  Maybe as a neder you can qualify it.  Maybe as hekdesh, it is not shayach to mishpitei hatanaim.  But I'm not sure why.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Rosh Hashana Daf 4

1. Tosfos 4b sv Pz"r - Rach and Rabbeinu Tam hold Shmini Atzeres is another Regel to stop aveilus.  We don't pasken like this, but Aruch Hashulchan brings it down l'tzorech.  Could be that if a) if Sukkos stopped Aveilus, Shmini Atzers can't either, or b) you need some chol before the regel for the regel to interrupt aveilus, and there is nor chol between Sukkos and Shmini Atzeres.  A possible Nafka mina would be if the mes died on Sukkos - there is no chol, but you're not  "double dipping " with both Sukkos and Shmini Atzeres.

2.  Shmini Atzeres separate for Bracha - Rabbeinu Tam held that it is not called Sukkos in davening.  This would work better according to the Torah Temima that on Yom Tov we don't say "mekadesh yisrael vehazmanim," rather "mekadesh Yisrael v'yom hasukkos" or "v'yom HaPesach."  Rav Yosh Ber vehemently argues on him (Nefesh Harav p. 182 and here).

This Tosfos slightly supports Torah Temima, but, would depend on the following question: a bracha's chasima must be like its content, so the fact that you said Chag Hasukkos in Yaaleh v'yavo and mekadesh yisrzel v'yom hazikaron in chasima is not a stirah.  What is the halcha is a) you said chag hamatzos in Yaaleh v'yavo on Sukkos, or b) didn't say any holiday name in yaaleh v'yavo and just said something like "byom tov hazeh", if you were yotzei shmone esray.  (Grid in Harirei Kedem I Siman 151 has a possibility saying Sukkos on Shmini Atzeres works but not any other mix-ups.)

Also this should depend on the Halacha mentioned in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim Siman 268:4 - if you mentioned Shabbos in Shmone Esra yeven though you didn't make mekadesh Hashabbos you are yoztei. Aruch Hashulchan 268:9-10 vehemently argues on this Beis Yosef because Chazal made a bracha for Shabbos, and if you mentioned shabbos but not the Bracha you shouldn't be yoztei.  I'd assume same  din, whether you hold like Beis Yosef or argeue on him, should hold for Yom Tov.  But, to answer the question of Aruch Hashulchan, we can say this Tosfos is the key: true you need to say mekadesh yisrael vehazmanim on Yom Tov, but the key ingredient is mentioning the name of the holiday in the middle of the Bracha.  (With this we can push off Torah Temima also and say mentioning holiday in the middle of the bracha is enough.)  I do admit that I don't like the logic of Tosfos, that mentioning the holiday within the bracha without a chasima of the holiday (bidieved) is yotzei.

3. Mosar Pesach.  See Gra"m and R' Aharon Lichtenstein, Shiurei Hare"l to Pesachim p. 217

Sunday, May 11, 2014

Rosh Hashana Daf 2

Here are some he'aros on Daf Yomi.  Don't assume what I say is correct; they are notes as I go through the daf.

1. Rashi sv Limlachim.  See here: (Rambam Igeres Techiyas Hameisim Ramabm L'am edition (Mossad Harav Kook) with footnote aleph.  That minyan hashtaros began in the time of Alexander the Great, which was before the time of the Gemara.  (And Alexander was Greek; is that applicable to Tosfos sv Limlachim?)

2. Rashi leshmitin.  See Makos 8b Rabi Akiva has drasha that it is asur to plow and prune before shmita starts.  Whether we don't pasken like him or it is an asmachta (unlikely), interesting.  And see Torah Temima to Shemos 34:21.

3. Gemara - yom echad bashana chashuv Shana.  See Makos 3b shloshim yom chashuv shana; seems our gemara will discuss this below on daf 10.

4. Rash isv umelech ben Melech - malchus yerusha,.  See my posts

I think I have a comment that from Tosfos in Brachos there is no srarah in Torah; Reb Elchonon in Bava Basra argues.  Yesterday I was reading Brody's "Saadyah Gaon" chapter 1 that there were differences between yerusha in Sura and Pumpedisa (sons who were wise enough followed their fathers i nthe shuros but not necessarily as Gaon) and in Eretz Yisrael, where sons commonly followed father as Gaon.

5. Rash isv Shans Esrim.  Why does Rashi emphasize Rav Papa had a kabala from his Rebbi to make these Gzeria shavas?  There is a principle you can derive your own kal vachomer but not gzeira shava.  Perhaps Rav Papa's approach was unlike those of other amoraim, but he did have a tradition for it.  See Makos 14b sv gzeira shava - very strange: Reish Lakish was a talmid of Rav Yochanan, so how could he not have that gzeira shava tradition?  We must answer (see Sefer Mareh Makom) that Tosfos in Eruvin says Reish Lakis had learned before he became a bandit and he did not have a tradition of such a gzeira shava from that Rebbi.